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Bristol, Michael D. Shakespeare’s America, America’s Shakespeare. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Byrnside, Ron. “Antebellum Music,” in The New Georgia Encyclopedia, www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1652
Dickey, Stephen. “Listening to Civil War Voices,” in Shakespeare in American Life, Folger Shakespeare Library, www.shakespeareinamericanlife.org/identity/bard/war/civilwar.cfm
Dormon, James H. Theater in the Ante Bellum South, 1815-1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.
Dye, Renee. “Narrating social theory: William Gilmore Simm’s Woodcraft,”Studies in the Novel, Vol. 35, Summer 2003, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3440/is_2_35/ai_n29016411/
ELYOT, Sir Thomas. The Book Named The Governor (1531), ed. S.E. Lehmberg, London: Dent, 1962.
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South (1854) http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/fitzhughsoc/fitzhugh.html
HORNBLOW, Arthur. A History of the Theatre in America from its Beginnings to the Present Times(2 vols.). London, 1919.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia (1787)www.etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefVirg.html
Kennedy, John Pendleton. Swallow Barn; Or, A Sojourn In The Old Dominion (1832) http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/abolitn/kennedyhp.html and http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/kennedyswallowbarn1/kennedyswallowbarn1.html
Kolin, Philip C., ed. Shakespeare in the South. Essays on Performance. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1983.
---. Shakespeare and Southern Writers. A Study in Influence. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1985.
Levine, Lawrence W. Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press, 1988.
McCurry, Stephanie. Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Melville, Herman. “Hawthorne and His Mosses” (The Literary World, August 17 and 24, 1850)www.eldritchpress.org/nh/hahm.html
Murphy, Christina. “Shakespeare and the Poetry of Henry Timrod,” in Philip C. Kolin (ed.) Shakespeare and Southern Writers. A Study in Influence. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1985. 29-47.
Pollard, Edward A. The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates (1866). New York: E.B. Treat, 1868.
RANKIN, Hugh F. The Theater in Colonial America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.
Rubin, Louis D., Jr and C. Hugh Holman. Southern Literary Study: Problems and Possibilities. Chapel Hill: University of Carolina Press, 1975.
Shattuck, Charles H. Shakespeare on the American Stage: From the Hallams to Edwin Booth. Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1976.
Simpson, Lewis P. The Man of Letters in New England and the South. Baton-rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973.
---. The Dispossessed Garden. Pastoral and History in Southern Literature , Athens: University of Georgia Press 1983.
---. “The South’s Reaction to Modernism: A Problem in the Study of Southern Letters”, in Louis D. Rubin, Jr and C. Hugh Holman. Southern Literary Study: Problems and Possibilities. Chapel Hill: University of Carolina Press, 1975. 48-70
Sturgess, Kim C. Shakespeare and the American Nation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.
---. “Shakespeare as Popular Entertainment in the 1800s,” in Shakespeare in American Life, Folger Shakespeare Library, www.shakespeareinamericanlife.org/transcripts/sturgess2.cfm
Taylor, William R. Cavalier and Yankee, the Old South and American National Character . London: W.H. Allen, 1963.
Timrod, Henry. “Literature in the South,” in Russell’s Magazine 5 (Aug. 1859): 385-95, rpt in Edd Winfield Parks (ed.) The Essays of Henry Timrod. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1942.
---. “Address Delivered at the Opening of the New Theatre at Richmond” <www.fullbooks.com/Poems-of-Henry-Timrod2.html>
---. “Ethnogenesis” <www.fullbooks.com/Poems-of-Henry-Timrod3.html>
Wells, Stanley, ed.Nineteenth-century Shakespeare burlesques, Vol. 5: American Shakespeare travesties (1852-1888). London: Diploma Press, 1978.
Whitman, Walt. “Poetry To-Day in America—Shakespeare—The Future” (1881), www.bartleby.com
Williams, David S. “Lost Cause Religion,” in The New Georgia Encyclopedia www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2723
Wimsatt,Mary Ann. “William Gilmore Simms”, in Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris (eds.), Encyclopedia of Southern culture(University of North Carolina Press, 1989) www.docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/simms1/bio.html
Wish, Harvey, ed. Antebellum Writings of George Fitzhugh and Hinton Rowan Helper on Slavery. New York: Capricorn Books, 1960.
Wyatt-Brown, Bertram, ed. Hearts of Darkness: Wellsprings of a Southern Literary Tradition. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.
Kim C. Sturgess, Shakespeare and the American Nation, dust jacket. See also Michael D. Bristol, Shakespeare’s America, America’s Shakespeare (1990 2) and Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America (1988).
Sturgess 18; see also Helen Whickham Koon, How Shakespeare Won the West (1925).
“Poetry To-Day in America—Shakespeare—The Future” (1881), www.bartleby.com, §4.
Further references can be found in Kolin, Shakespeare in the South, 3-4.
“Hawthorne and His Mosses” (The Literary World, August 17 and 24, 1850), available at www.eldritchpress.org/nh/hahm.html, accessed Aug. 24, 2009.
The same observation can be extended to the situation that prevailed until the mid-eighteenth century, when Shakespeare was only available in book form (mostly in private libraries), and therefore confined to a small, educated elite (see Jennifer Mylander, “Instruction and English Refinement in America: Shakespeare, Anti-Theatricality, and Early Modern Reading”, a paper presented at the “Shakespeare in American Education, 1607-1934” Spring Conference held at the Folger Institute (16-17 March 2007); an abstract can be found at www.folger.edu/template.cfm?cid=2355).
Sturgess mentions a steady five per decade American editions of Shakespeare’s complete works in the first half of the nineteenth century, and a sudden increase in the 1850s (29 editions) (19-21). In De la démocratie en Amérique (1835), Tocqueville famously reported “There is hardly a pioneer's hut which does not contain a few odd volumes of Shakespeare. I remember reading the feudal drama of Henry V for the first time in a log cabin” (I, 13).
See Shattuck, 5-6: “whether as colony or state, Episcopalian Virginia never passed laws banning plays, nor did Catholic Maryland.”
Shattuck, 6; see also Sara Nalley, “Shakespeare on the Charleston Stage, 1764-1799,” in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare in the South… (73) and, in the same volume, Christopher Thaiss, “Shakespeare in Maryland, 1752-1860,” who mentions the aspirations of Maryland’s fashionable society to emulate that of London (48).
Quoted by Levine 24. For additional evidence of color people attending theater see for instance, in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare in the South…, the contributions of A. Aronson on Virginia, J. P. Roppolo on New Orleans, or L. E. Orange in Mississippi, who gives details of ticket prices for the various categories—usually $1.00 for a white adult, 50 cents for children and slaves (in the gallery) (159), while Ron Byrnside mentions admission prices ranging from twenty-five cents to one dollar to see operas and dramas in antebellum Georgia, which made theaterthe “primary source of entertainment for the populace” (article “Antebellum Music”, in The New Georgia Encyclopedia, www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1652).
See Levine 36 and Stanley Wells (ed.),Nineteenth-century Shakespeare burlesques, vol. 5: American Shakespeare travesties (1852-1888).
Quoted by Levine 73.
See James H. Dormon, Theater in the Antebellum South, 1815-1861, 258; Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow, 34.
Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow, 35 and 37-38. Alfred Van Rensselaer Westfall devotes a chapter to “Our Presidents as Shakespearean Critics” in his survey of American Shakespeare Criticism 1607-1865.
“Listening to Civil War Voices,” in Shakespeare in American Life, Folger Shakespeare Library,www.shakespeareinamericanlife.org/identity/bard/war/civilwar.cfm and www.shakespeareinamericanlife.org/identity/bard/war/voices_6.cfm.
“Shakespeare as Popular Entertainment in the 1800s”: www.shakespeareinamericanlife.org/transcripts/sturgess2.cfm
Nan Johnson, “The Popularization of Shakespeare in Nineteenth-Century American Rhetorical Education,” www.folger.edu/template.cfm?cid=2348
Available at http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/helper/helper.html. On the influence of the McGuffey Readers, see E.C. Dunn, Shakespeare in America, chap. XII and Jonathan Burton “ ‘Lay On, McGuffey’: Shakespeare and the Shaping of High School English in America” (www.folger.edu/template.cfm?cid=2338); for the suggestion that the extension of education after the Civil War coincided with the anglo-saxonization of Shakespeare, as “New England became the school of America,” see Kim Sturgess, Shakespeare and the American Nation, 19-21.
See Jonathan Bate, “The Romantic Stage,” in Jonathan Bate and Russell Jackson (eds.), Shakespeare, An Illustrated Stage History (Oxford UP, 1996), 92-111.
“Shakespeare in Virginia, 1751-1863,” in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare in the South…, 32.
See my “Coriolan dans la jeune république des Etats-Unis: entre tragédie politique et (mélo)drame personnel” at http://www2.uvsq.fr/toute-l-actualite/autour-de-coriolan-perception-reception-19249.kjsp and Jonathan Bate, “The Romantic Stage”, in Jonathan Bate and Russell Jackson (eds.), Shakespeare, An Illustrated Stage History (Oxford UP, 1996), 92-111. Judging from the tables established by John Ripley, Julius Caesar on stage in England and America (1599-1973) and Coriolanus on stage in England and America (1609-1994), it could be tentatively argued that the South saw less of the Roman plays, but on the whole, there is little hard evidence to rely upon. Besides, the South was not a uniform entity, and there appear to have been variations in popularity from one city to another, as appears clearly from the studies collected by Philip Kolin in Shakespeare in the South.
Charles B. Lower, “Othello as Black on Southern Stages, Then and Now” in Kolin, Shakespeare in the South…, 199-228, 202 and 218.
Henry Timrod’s poem “Ethnogenesis” (1861), available at www.fullbooks.com/Poems-of-Henry-Timrod3.html;see also Kim Sturgess, Shakespeare and the American Nation, “South of the Mason-Dixon Line,” 150-51.
“The Morals of Slavery” (1837) , in The pro-slavery argument: as maintained by the most distinguished writers of the Southern states, containing the several essays, on the subject, of Chancellor Harper, Governor Hammond, Dr. Simms, and Professor Dew Charleston: Walker, Richards & Co., 1852, 251, available athttp://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=moa;idno=ABT7488
George Fitzhugh, Sociology For The South Or The Failure of Free Society (1854), chap. I “Free Trade,” in Harvey Wish, ed.,Antebellum Writings of George Fitzhugh and Hinton Rowan Helper on Slavery, New York: Capricorn Books, 1960, 57 and electronic edition: http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/fitzhughsoc/fitzhugh.html pp. 25-26. On the notion of service in Elizabethan England, see David Evett, Discourses of Service in Shakespeare’s England, New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.
See Renee Dye, “Narrating social theory: William Gilmore Simm’s Woodcraft”,Studies in the Novel, Vol. 35, Summer 2003, available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3440/is_2_35/ai_n29016411/ 1-2.
Hinton Rowan Helper,The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It (1857), available at http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/helper/helper.html; see also David Brown, Southern Outcast: Hinton Rowan Helper and The Impending Crisis of the South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006), and “Hinton Rowan Helper: The Logical Outcome of the Non-Slaveholders’ Philosophy ?”:The Historical Journal46:1(2003): 39-58, Cambridge UP.
Bertram Wyatt-Brown, ed., Hearts of darkness: Wellsprings of a Southern Literary Tradition, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2003, xiii. For an account of honor in Shakespeare’s England, see Mervyn James, English politics and the concept of honour, 1485-1642, Past & Present Supplement n°3, 1978, 27-28, reprinted in Mervyn James, Society, Politics and Culture, Cambridge UP, 1986.
Stephanie McCurry, Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, 304.As Janette Keith observes in her review of the book, “The Low Country represents the Slave South carried to extremes,” characterized as it was by “huge plantations, a majority slave population, and a political system unique in the South for its elitism” (www.h-net.org/reviews/showpdf.php?id=284).
Rable points out that those women are generally neglected by historians who have “often emphasized women’s expressions of discontent with life in the South, particularly discontent with slavery, trying to turn them into not only abolitionists but also closet feminists” (Civil Wars, Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism, Chicago: U. of Illinois P, 1989, x).
Shakespeare, Richard II, II.1.31-68; Louis D. Rubin, Jr, “Southern Literature and Southern Society: Notes on a Clouded Relationship,” in Louis D. Rubin, Jr and C. Hugh Holman, Southern Literary Study: Problems and Possibilities, Chapel Hill: U. of Carolina Press, 1975, 7.
Thomas Jefferson,Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), Query 19, available at http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefVirg.html, and Lewis P. Simpson, The Man of Letters…, 210-12. Jefferson’s description is permeated with overtones of the tradition of pastoral humanism first fully articulated in Virgil’s Eclogues.
Lewis P. Simpson, The Dispossessed Garden, 65 and 34 respectively.
Lewis P. Simpson, Foreword to Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare and Southern Writers x.
Christina Murphy, “The Artistic Design of Societal Commitment: Shakespeare and the Poetry of Henry Timrod,” in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare and Southern Writers, 40. Those “mature poems” (written over the period 1860-67), include “Ethnogenesis,” “The Cotton Boll,” “Carolina,” “Charleston,” “Address Delivered at the Opening of the New Theatre at Richmond,” and “Ode (Sung on the Occasion of Decorating the Graves of the Confederate Dead)”.
Kolin 1985 44 and 42 respectively; it is noteworthy that Hamlet’s indecision was similarly used by William Gilmore Simms to characterize the indolent Southern planters whom he urged to assume martial readiness (see Charles S. Watson’s contribution on William Gilmore Simms in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare and Southern Writers).
C. Murphy, in Philip C. Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare and Southern Writers, 44, quoting Lewis P. Simpson, “The South’s Reaction to Modernism: A Problem in the Study of Southern Letters”, in Louis D. Rubin, Jr and C. Hugh Holman, Southern Literary Study… 62.
Timrod, “Address…” at <www.fullbooks.com/Poems-of-Henry-Timrod2.html>.
“Literature in the South”: first published in Russell’s Magazine 5 (Aug. 1859): 385-95, rpt in Edd Winfield Parks (ed.), The Essays of Henry Timrod, Athens: Univ. of Georgia Pr, 1982, 83; Timrod complained: “We think that at no time, and in no country, has the position of an author been beset with such peculiar difficulties as the Southern writer is compelled to struggle with from the beginning to the end of his career,” quoted by C. Murphy, in Kolin (ed.), Shakespeare and Southern Writers, 30-31.
Edward A. Pollard, The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates (1866).
Quoted by William R. Taylor, Cavalier and Yankee, the Old South and American national character (1963), 161-62, in the chapter entitled “From Hotspur to Hamlet.” See also the more recent book by Joseph B. Keener, Shakespeare and Masculinity in Southern Fiction: Faulkner, Simms, Page, and Dixon, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Quoted by David S. Williams in his article “Lost Cause Religion,” in New Georgia Encyclopedia: www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2723Haut de page